Nazifah Husainah1, Hasanah2, Mohamad Iswandi3

Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia,, emailiswandi@gmail.com3




leadership, work environment, work discipline, occupational safety and health

This research aims to analyze the influence of leadership on occupational safety and health (K3), the influence of the work environment on occupational safety and health (K3), the influence of work discipline on occupational safety and health (K3) and the influence of leadership, work environment and work discipline collectively on occupational safety and health (K3). A quantitative approach is used in this type of research. The population in this study is the project workforce at PT Haleyora Power, with 26,215 workers and a sample size of 1,207 workers. The sampling technique used proportional random sampling. The data collection method uses a questionnaire with data analysis through multiple linear analysis. Based on the research results, it was found that the influence of leadership on occupational safety and health was 0.418, the influence of the work environment on occupational safety and health was 0.432, the influence of work discipline on occupational safety and health was 0.418, and the influence of leadership, work environment and work discipline had a simultaneous coefficient on occupational safety and health of 0.910.

DOI: 10.58860/ijsh.v3i1.150


Corresponding Author: Mohamad Iswandi




In the modern era of globalization, when companies function in a constantly changing and interconnected global environment, organizations must actively improve the aptitude and capacity of their human resources in order to be competitive (Ponisciakova, 2020; Grabowska & Saniuk, 2022). They are realizing the critical role that human resources (HR) plays in promoting organizational success (Alqudah et al., 2022). Businesses must elevate HR to a position of utmost importance and make it a focal point of strategic initiatives and activities meant to promote expansion, innovation, and long-term excellence within the organization (Gupta, 2020). This intentional focus on strengthening and optimizing the human resources within an organization helps to create a workforce that is both skilled and flexible. It also puts the business in a position to take advantage of the opportunities and manage the challenges posed by the complex web of global business dynamics.

Ensuring the health and safety of employees while they do their duties is a crucial matter that requires the company's undivided attention (De Cieri & Lazarova, 2021). This emphasis takes on even more significance when one considers that workplace safety and health not only have a substantial impact on the calibre and output of work but also are mandated by government regulations. Ensuring rigorous adherence to these standards serves to promote a positive business culture in addition to protecting employee welfare. Furthermore, a company's overall sustainability can be determined by its adherence to strong occupational safety and health practices, which not only reduce potential risks and liabilities but also boost employee engagement, morale, and long-term productivity—all of which help to build a strong and durable organizational framework in the highly competitive global marketplace.

According to Setiono & Andjarwati (2019) the purpose of work safety is to provide workers with all-encompassing protection and to guarantee that their safety rights are realized during their employment, protecting their lives and health. Work safety is a human activity that is committed to achieving safety within work operations. This dedication to work safety has an influence that goes beyond personal well-being; it is especially important in the larger national context, where it actively contributes to increased productivity at work (Obrenovic et al., 2020). It is based on a strategic approach and entails the careful distribution and safe and effective use of production resources to build a robust workplace. Not only does this dedication to work safety put the health and welfare of employees first, but it also goes so far as to guarantee the safety of everyone involved in teamwork, creating a thorough system for a safe and peaceful work environment.

Meanwhile, according to Sholikin (2020) and Rina et al. (2023), occupational health and safety, namely increasing and maintaining the highest level of social, mental and physical well-being of all workers in every type of work, maintaining and placing workers in a safe and healthy work environment, workers in all jobs are protected from risks that arise due to factors that interfere with health, as well as prevention of work-related health problems.

According to Laurent and Wijono (2018), leadership is the process of providing motivation to other people to work diligently to achieve company goals. Leadership is also defined as an activity that influences other people and changes individual attitudes so that a goal is achieved, whether for group or individual goals (Arifin et al., 2019).

According to Sugiyanti and Darmadi (2020), the work environment includes things that exist near the workforce that cause a person to be influenced to carry out the obligations that have been given to him, including lighting, air conditioning, and others. The work environment is all the materials and tools found, the surrounding environment where individuals work, and the arrangements and work methods, whether for groups or individuals (Sedarmayanti, 2017). The work environment is also defined as a direct working relationship with individuals in lower positions, the same position, or those in higher positions (Effendy & Fitria, 2019).

According to Jusman et al. (2022) Discipline is a force that increases in the worker's own body which results in voluntary adjustments to rules, decisions and high values of behavior and work. Individual attitudes that are based on applicable rules, attitudes or work methods, actions and behavior that are based on organizational regulations, whether unwritten or written, are called work discipline (Rahayu, 2019; Salam et al., 2020). According to Hidayat (2021), discipline is management activity in carrying out various organizational standards. Discipline is a form of employee self-control and is carried out regularly and shows the level of seriousness of the work team in an organization.

According to Manuaba in (Ambarwati & Lataruva, 2014) states that the causes of work accidents are:

1.       Unsafe Human Actions

a.       Carrying out work without authority or authorized failure:

It occurs when a person performs a task or work without proper permission or authority or when a worker who should be authorized fails to successfully carry out the task.

b.       Securing or warning someone:

Refers to the act of securing or warning others nearby, such as in an emergency situation or when there is potential danger.

c.       Operating machine tools outside safe limits:

Engaging in operating tools or machines in unsafe areas or outside established safety limits

d.       Causing work safety equipment to not work:

It is related to actions that cause the failure or non-functioning of work safety equipment that is supposed to protect workers.


e.       Improper/unsafe methods of lifting/transporting, placing and storing items:

Involves the use of unsafe methods in lifting, transporting or storing items, which can increase the risk of injury.

f.        Using an unfavorable/unsafe posture/body position:

Refers to using an attitude or body position that is not good for safety, such as working in a position that can cause injury.

g.       Working with moving or dangerous tools/machinery:

Engaging in work with moving or dangerous tools or machines without observing required safety procedures.

h.       Conduct disruptive, abusive, and overreaching actions:

These actions include behavior that may disrupt a situation, abuse power, or exceed established safety limits.

2.       Unsafe Physical and Mechanical Conditions

a.       Insufficient/non-working safety devices:

Refers to conditions where safety devices do not function properly or do not function at all, increasing the risk of accidents or injuries.

b.       No safety measures:

Occurs when there are no necessary safety facilities or equipment to protect workers from potential hazards or accidents.

c.       Presence of unsafe conditions:

Refers to conditions in the work environment that do not meet safety standards, such as leaks of hazardous substances or instability of building structures.

d.       Poor design:

Indicates the design of equipment or workplaces that do not adequately consider safety aspects, which can increase safety risks.

Setting work processes that are dangerous or contain risks, such as too heavy a body or narrow/irregular roads.

As the most valuable asset, human resources need to be ensured to be able to work optimally, safely and effectively (Tien et al., 2021; Sinambela et al., 2022). Occupational safety and health are variables that need to be considered. Occupational safety and health protection is one of the various aspects of labor protection. This protection is intended to ensure that the workforce can work safely, which increases productivity (Brauer, 2022; Friend et al., 2023).

Regulation of the Minister of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia No. 5 of 2018 concerning Occupational Safety and Health The work environment, limiting occupational safety and health with the abbreviation K3, namely all activities to protect and guarantee the safety and health of workers, through efforts to prevent work-related diseases and work accidents (Djatmiko, 2021; Putri et al., 2022).

The cited works of Laurent and Wijono (2018), Sugiyanti and Darmadi (2020), and Jusman et al. (2022) offer vital foundational insights that are greatly beneficial to the research named "The Influence of Leadership, Work Environment, and Work Discipline on Occupational Safety and Health." In the context of occupational safety and health, these views together provide the conceptual foundation for the study, allowing for a thorough investigation of the interrelated roles of leadership, work environment, and work discipline. The research benefits from a clear framework that uses definitions to explain discipline as an internal force influencing individual actions, leadership as a motivating process, and the work environment as including both physical and relational elements. This comprehensive knowledge not only clarifies the goals of the study but also establishes the framework for investigating the ways in which these elements interact to improve occupational safety and health in organizational contexts. The study is well-positioned to provide complex insights that connect theoretical underpinnings with real-world applications for businesses looking to maximize worker safety.


This research is quantitative descriptive research. The population used in this research is the project workforce, which totals 26,215 workers. For the research sample, 1,207 employees were carried out from a minimum sample of 379 workers in accordance with the Krenjtie and Morgan table, as attached, with an error rate of 5%. In this study, researchers used the Probability Sampling method. Meanwhile, the method for collecting questionnaire data in this research is that researchers create a Google form, which will be distributed and filled in by workers. From the literature review, a theoretical framework has been prepared which states the influence between variables. The model below is used to determine the variables of completeness of work equipment, discipline, and leadership assertiveness towards occupational safety and health. For more clarity, the theoretical framework in this research is described as follows:



Figure 1. Framework for thinking


Multiple linear regression model



X1: Leadership variable, also called independent variable

X2: Work environment variables al, so-called independent variables

X3: Work discipline variable, also called independent variable

Y: Occupational safety and health variables al, so-called dependent variables


This research analyzes validity testing through analysis based on respondents' answers to the questionnaire. Implementation of validity testing by conducting correlation analysis of each question item from the total value of each variable. The correlation of each question item and the total value of each variable is carried out using a correlation technique, namely Pearson's product-moment so that it is known whether the analyzed variable is valid or not, then compare the correlation results from the critical numbers. The correlation table at the degree of freedom (df) = n - 3, as well as the level of significance, is 5%. The basis for making decisions is if the validity test results produced exceed the critical number of the correlation table, the question item is declared valid. Use of the Alpha Conbrach technique in reliability testing through the use of a computer in the form of the SPSS program. A variable is said to be reliable or reliable if an Alpha Conbrach (α) value > 0.6 is obtained. In this study, normality was tested using the one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on the basis of making a decision, namely if the probability of significance exceeds 5% so that the assumption of normality is met by the regression model. To find out whether there is heteroscedasticity or not, it can be seen from the Glesjer test. Suppose each independent variable has a probability of significance > 0.05. In that case, it can be concluded that scorchedasticity in the regression model does not occur. A regression model has guidelines that are free from multicollinearity and have a Tolerance Value exceeding 0.1, while the VIF limit is 10 and has a number close to that.



Figure 2. The results of the framework

In the influence of leadership on occupational safety and health, according to the hypothesis test, the leadership coefficient value is 0.418, and the significance level is 0.000 below 0.05. This shows that leadership has a positive and significant influence on occupational safety and health (Basalamah, 2023).

The influence of the work environment on occupational safety and health. Based on the hypothesis test above, the work environment coefficient value is 0.432, and the significance level is 0.000 below 0.05. This shows that the work environment has a positive and significant influence on occupational safety and health (Fahmi et al., 2022).

Regarding the influence of work discipline on occupational safety and health, according to the hypothesis test above, the work environment coefficient value is 0.418, and the significance level is 0.000 below 0.05. This shows that Work Discipline has a positive and significant impact on occupational safety and health (Suryanto et al., 2023).

The combined simultaneous coefficient value of 0.910 for work safety and health reflects the research findings, which demonstrate a strong positive and statistically significant influence of leadership, work environment, and work discipline. The fact that these factors have a significance level below 0.05 highlights how important they are in promoting workplace safety and health. It is recommended by practical implications that firms implement integrated safety strategies that include leadership development initiatives, workplace optimization, and work discipline promotion. Long-term impact evaluations, industry-specific variations, technological integration, psychological elements of safety, and customized interventions for certain work disciplines are some areas of future research that could be explored to improve workplace safety standards.



Based on the results of research that has been carried out to determine the influence of leadership, work environment and work discipline on occupational safety and health partially and simultaneously, the following conclusions can be obtained: 1) Leadership has a positive and significant influence on occupational safety and health of PT Haleyora Power employees 2) The work environment has a positive and significant influence on the occupational safety and health of PT Haleyora Power employees 3) Work Discipline has a positive and significant impact on the occupational safety and health of PT Haleyora Power employees 4) Leadership, work environment and work discipline together have a positive and significant influence on the work safety and health of PT Haleyora Power employees.



Alqudah, I. H. A., Carballo-Penela, A., & Ruzo-Sanmartín, E. (2022). High-performance human resource management practices and readiness for change: An integrative model including affective commitment, employees’ performance, and the moderating role of hierarchy culture. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 28(1), 100177.

Ambarwati, D., & Lataruva, E. (2014). Pengaruh beban kerja terhadap stres perawat igd dengan dukungan sosial sebagai variabel moderating (studi pada RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang). Fakultas Ekonomika dan Bisnis.

Arifin, S., Putra, A. R., & Hartanto, C. F. B. (2019). Pengaruh kompetensi, kompensasi dan kepemimpinan terhadap kinerja karyawan. Ekonomi, Keuangan, Investasi Dan Syariah (EKUITAS), 1(1), 22–29.

Basalamah, S. A. (2023). The Effect of Transformational Leadership Style, Work Motivation and Work Environment on Employee Performance. EDUCATIO: Journal of Education, 7(4), 236–252.

Brauer, R. L. (2022). Safety and health for engineers. John Wiley & Sons.

De Cieri, H., & Lazarova, M. (2021). “Your health and safety is of utmost importance to us”: a review of research on the occupational health and safety of international employees. Human Resource Management Review, 31(4), 100790.

Djatmiko, A. (2021). Reconstruction on the Regulation of Occupational Safety and Health in Indonesia Based on Justice. Sch Int J Law Crime Justice, 4(5), 296–301.

Effendy, A. A., & Fitria, J. R. (2019). Pengaruh Lingkungan Kerja Dan Stres Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan (Studi Kasus Pt. Modernland Realty, Tbk). JIMF (Jurnal Ilmiah Manajemen Forkamma), 2(2), 49–61.

Fahmi, P., Saluy, A. B., Safitri, E., Rivaldo, Y., & Endri, E. (2022). Work Stress Mediates Motivation and Discipline on Teacher Performance: Evidence Work from Home Policy. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 12(3), 80.

Friend, M., Friend, M. A., Kohn, J. P., & Kohn, J. (2023). Fundamentals of occupational safety and health. Rowman & Littlefield.

Grabowska, S., & Saniuk, S. (2022). Assessment of the competitiveness and effectiveness of an open business model in the industry 4.0 environment. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 8(1), 57.

Gupta, A. Das. (2020). Strategic human resource management: Formulating and implementing HR strategies for a competitive advantage. CRC Press.

Hidayat, F. (2021). Peningkatan Disiplin Kerja Pegawai di Sekretariat Daerah Kota Palu Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Jurnal Renaissance, 6(2), 844–858.

Jusman, J., Maryadi, M., & Idris, M. (2022). Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Motivasi Kerja Pegawai Pada Dinas Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan Kabupaten Polewali Mandar. Jurnal Bisnis Dan Kewirausahaan, 11(1), 64–74.

Laurent, J. T., & Wijono, S. (2018). Hubungan Antara Gaya Kepemimpinan Situasional Dengan Kinerja Karyawan Pada Pt. Marga Nusantara Jaya Cabang Tegal. Personifikasi: Jurnal Ilmu Psikologi, 9(1), 9–19.

Obrenovic, B., Jianguo, D., Khudaykulov, A., & Khan, M. A. S. (2020). Work-family conflict impact on psychological safety and psychological well-being: A job performance model. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 475.

Ponisciakova, O. (2020). Knowledge management and its application in human resources management in the context of globalization. SHS Web of Conferences, 74, 1026.

Putri, A. V. A., Nugroho, Y. S., Chairunnisa, K. A., Danastuti, A. C. R., Saputra, M. R. E., & Widodo, R. G. (2022). Importance of Implementing Occupational Safety and Health Systems for Labor Protection in Industry. Proceeding International Conference Restructuring and Transforming Law, 262–270.

Rahayu, E. A. (2019). Disiplin Kerja Dan Kinerja Aparatur Sipil Negara Di Kantor Dinas Pendidikan Kabupaten Luwu Timur. Universitas Negeri Makassar.

Rina, W., KM, S., KL, M., Eliyana, N., Jinan, R. R., Palilingan, R. A., SKM, M., Rosmawati, S. S., Harahap, P. S., & SKM, M. (2023). Bunga Rampai Kesehatan Dan Keselamatan Kerja. Media Pustaka Indo.

Salam, N. F. S., Rifai, A. M., & Ali, H. (2020). Faktor penerapan disiplin kerja: kesadaran diri, motivasi, lingkungan (suatu kajian studi literatur manajemen pendidikan dan ilmu sosial). Jurnal Manajemen Pendidikan Dan Ilmu Sosial, 2(1), 487–508.

Sedarmayanti. (2017). Perencanaan Dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Untuk Meningkatkan Kompetensi, Kinerja, Dan Produktivitas Kerja. PT.Refika Aditama.

Setiono, B. A., & Andjarwati, T. (2019). Budaya keselamatan, kepemimpinan keselamatan, pelatihan keselamatan, iklim keselamatan dan kinerja. Zifatama Jawara.

Sholikin, M. N. (2020). Aspek hukum keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja (k3) bagi tenaga medis dan kesehatan di masa pandemi. Majalah Hukum Nasional, 50(2), 163–182.

Sinambela, E. A., Darmawan, D., & Mendrika, V. (2022). Effectiveness of Efforts to Establish Quality Human Resources in the Organization. Journal of Marketing and Business Research (MARK), 2(1), 47–58.

Sugiyanti, S., & Darmadi, D. (2020). Strategi Meningkatkan Kinerja Menggunakan Pengaruh Lingkungan Kerja, Disiplin Kerja, Beban Kerja, Dan Kompensasi Pada Karyawan Dinas Peternakan Dan Perikanan Kabupaten Grobogan. Riset Manajemen Dan Akuntansi, 11(2), 94–107.

Suryanto, A., Istiatin, I., & Sudarwati, S. (2023). Competence communication discipline and work environment on employee performance. Enrichment: Journal of Management, 13(3), 1704–1715.

Tien, N. H., Jose, R. J. S., Ullah, S. E., & Sadiq, M. (2021). Development of human resource management activities in Vietnamese private companies. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(14), 4391–4401.

© 2024 by the authors. It was submitted for possible open-access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY SA) license (